How has screen brutalization of women escalated? Why?
What is the difference between the shock of Janet Leigh in Psycho (1960), stabbed to death in the motel bathroom, and Heather Matarazzo in Hostel, Part II (2007), hanging naked by her feet, then gutted by a scythe in order to provide a bloodbath for her female killer?
One difference, of course, is that Psycho was made under the late, unlamented Motion Picture Production Code and Hostel under the Motion Picture Association of America ratings system. Another is that in the near half century that separates these films, directors increasingly have aligned the viewer with the perpetrator of violence without providing a moral frame.
Why do you think the brutalization of women onscreen has escalated? Do you think the MPAA ratings system is more lenient toward extreme violence than it is toward consensual sex?